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Figure 1: The use of mobile apps for betting has grown in the last few years

In the last few years, there has been a surge in online betting in the US as individual states rewrote their laws and regulations surrounding sports betting. A Supreme Court decision in 2018 set the ball rolling and now more and more states are legalizing betting – and, more importantly, mobile sports betting.

Up until very recently, New Yorkers needed to cross over into New Jersey to place bets using their mobile phones and apps. But now someone living in the city can sign up for a new account using a BetUS promo code, for example, and place their bets all in the comfort of their own home. But why did mobile betting become so popular? And what does the future hold for the gambling industry?

Advances in Technology

Mobile sports betting has been common in Europe and other areas of the world for a while now. Betting firms realized very quickly that their customers were demanding a much easier betting experience and the technology was becoming available to be able to supply that need.

Mobile phones and other devices have used the technology that is now available to allow customers to perform far more activities than ever before – and that includes betting. The trust issue that was once a factor is no longer a problem as online sportsbooks and casinos have used technology to interact far more naturally with their customer account holders.

User Experience

If it wasn’t easy to use a mobile phone or tablet to bet, online gambling would have never become as popular as it has. But betting firms have been able to cater to the demands of their customers and now provide a far simpler process for placing bets than ever before.

Not only is there the advantage of not having to travel to a high street bookmaker or a bricks and mortar casino, but the experience is as enjoyable as it is easy. Even the most technophobe of customers can work out how to make a selection in seconds – and placing a bet takes an even shorter time.

Figure 2: Mobile sports betting has become even easier


Although persuading lawmakers in some countries and regions has not always been the easiest task, the convenience of using a mobile phone to place a bet or play an online casino game is a huge reason why so many customer account holders prefer this method.

Not only do the majority of people use mobile phones these days, but they can sometimes be the most secure way of dealing with anything financial in some areas of the world. Where conventional banking systems are not as prevalent, mobile use is an option – and has become the most favored way of betting.

Mobile Integration

One of the aspects of mobile use that betting firms quickly identified is that their customers liked to use their phones and tablets to perform a variety of tasks. More importantly, they were disappointed and frustrated when they were not able to link up different tasks in the one place.

The very nature of sports betting helps with this integration model. Mobile payment services have expanded in recent years and betting firms have been quick to offer more ways to move funds. There is even the chance to use GPS technology to identify betting markets in more localized areas. Online betting companies have been able to use the way everyone uses their mobile phones to their advantage.

The Future

The easy way to answer how betting companies will adapt in the future is to say that all the factors profiled here will change in course with the technology available. Mobile has already become the most popular way of betting and the bookmakers are now identifying new regions where gambling laws are changing.

New security measures will be key – as will be the growth in cryptocurrency use in betting. Mobile phones and betting apps make all of this easier to control in one place. You can be sure that the betting companies will be at the forefront of the advances in technology.

The Latest Advancements in Reality Gaming

The Latest Advancements in Reality Gaming

The Latest Advancements in Reality Gaming

If you have had the opportunity to stay up to speed with the world of technology, you have probably come to realize by now that realism and the most immersive experience combined together have been significant keys in determining the future of cloud gaming.

Though the same could be said about nearly any type of video game out there, these two specific factors are considered to be the most important, as both realism and immersion allow for much more quicker response times compared to other stimuli. And if you consider yourself to be a gamer, whether amateur or pro, we all know how recent bandwidth and latency issues can turn our gaming experience into something far less enjoyable than it was designed to be. With that being said, these are just some of the reasons why most of the world is experimenting with virtual reality gaming more than ever.

Also known as immersive multimedia in some technology circles, virtual reality has grown to be much more than a stranger at events like E3, but the latest advancements in this hardware and software still continue to turn heads. While the virtual technology we have available is still quite limited in several aspects, it is only the beginning.

The Oculus Rift headset is tested by attendees at the Eurogamer Expo at Earls Court in London.

The Oculus Rift headset is tested by attendees at the Eurogamer Expo at Earls Court in London.

Sony, Oculus, and Facebook — Oh My!

It was only two years ago when Facebook purchased Sony and Oculus VR, which is probably the most popular virtual reality gaming start-up to date. But while the social media giant has yet to carve any solid plans into stone as to what they plan to do with this buy of the century, several other companies are stepping up to the plate with their own virtual reality demonstrations. And as for the rest of the developers, such as Virtuix Omni, add-on virtual reality gaming equipment is creating just as much buzz.

During E3 in 2014, Virtuix Omni revealed their 360-degree treadmill, designed to be used in conjunction with the Oculus Rift headset. They even developed special shoes that users would need to wear with the low-friction surface in order to allow players to slide across the platform.

Though Oculus Rift has been receiving most of the attention since virtual gaming was introduced to the public, it’s not the only piece of hardware that’s been turning heads. Ubisoft and Electronic Arts have also hinted that they will be taking the route of virtual gaming as well in the near future.

Project Morpheus Headset

Project Morpheus Headset

“There is No Spoon” — Project Morpheus

Initially revealed at the 2014 GDC (Game Developers Conference), industry-leader Sony has also decided to join in on the virtual gaming phenomenon with Project Morpheus. Intended to be used in conjunction with the variety of games they already have to offer to consumers, Project Morpheus’ newest evolution has a wide range of features that land right up there with the Oculus Rift. And, if we’re lucky, we may even be able to own one ourselves by 2016.

Complete with a field view that stretches to 100 degrees, Project Morpheus offers a comfortable 5.7-inch OLED screen and is able to support an outstanding 120 FPS (frames per second). In addition, one of its newest features also enables 3D audio and “social screen,” allowing users to project what they see inside the Morpheus system onto a larger television screen, which enables other players to join in.

Samsung Unpacked - Gear VR

Samsung Unpacked – Gear VR

Smartphones Get Smarter — Gear VR

Powered by the Galaxy Note 4, Samsung’s Gear VR is yet another device that has been brought to us by Oculus, the company at the forefront of the virtual reality industry. Known for their brilliant mobile phone models and their display abilities, the Gear VR was designed to give users the most cinematic experience possible in terms of both games and videos.

Using the Note 4, users can easily create an immersive effect by connecting the mobile phone into the VR device in conjunction with the 3D dual lenses. In addition to its simple touch pad and controls, Samsung is planning to give early adopters of this device access to a collection of 360-degree videos and movie trailers from a variety of studios, all pre-loaded.

Gameface Mark IV

Gameface Mark IV

Put Your Game Face On — GameFace

The GameFace prototype by GameFace Labs has certainly come a long way since its first introduction. Now in its fifth iteration, the GameFace virtual reality headset still doesn’t have as many bells and whistles as something like the Oculus and all of its add-ons. Instead, the GameFace offers a more inclusive solution to the casual gamer. Running on a custom Android-based virtual reality operating system, this is truly an all-in-one unit that continues to advance. Now with a 2.5k display, which is the highest in virtual reality, the GameFace headset is one that offers desktop-class graphics and much less latency than its previous models.

The Future of Reality Gaming

Each year we witness more diverse and advanced technology than the year before. And in the case of virtual reality gaming, we can only expect it to continue to grow upwards. From being able to take tours around countries you’ve never visited before to making exercise more interesting, it’s clear to see that this kind of technology has not even begun to reach its full potential. Just imagine all of the current games we play on wired gaming consoles and computers, and how they can improve by moving to a virtual reality system like the Oculus Rift or Morpheus.

Ten years ago, not many people would have ever thought that this kind of technology would ever exist, but then again, no one ever expected mobile phones to do what they are able to do now. Regardless of which genre of games you enjoy playing, whether it’s poker, puzzles, adventure, etc., don’t be too shocked if it becomes enhanced by the inclusion of virtual-reality hardware in the near future. What do you see yourself using this kind of technology for in the future? Games? Social media? With the technology we have available today, there’s no reason to leave any stone unturned.

Electronic devices such as mobile phones can be left switched on during flights, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) has announced.

The EASA says that electronic devices do not pose a safety risk.

The announcement clears the way for airlines to permit the use of mobile phones, once they have conducted their own safety reviews.

Currently airline passengers have to switch devices to flight mode and make calls from the airport terminal.

The EASA says that electronic devices do not pose a safety risk during flights

The EASA says that electronic devices do not pose a safety risk during flights

The EASA sets the framework for airlines making safety decisions.

The agency said each airline would still have to go through an assessment process, ensuring aircraft systems are not affected by the signals from portable electronic devices before establishing their own rules for their operation.

As a result there could be a delay in implementing the new rules at some airlines.

The EASA also says that airlines may opt for different policies on the use of mobile devices.

Google Play has been on the scene since October 2008 and during this six-year period it has grown to be one of the two biggest mobile app platforms in the world – alongside the App Store created by Apple. Google Play services those who use Android phones and, having started as the relative underdog, now has 84.7% of the overall market share, as pointed out by CNET. Of course market share does not automatically ensure dominance, but there are other signs that Google Play could achieve this.

google-play-logoAlthough Android has this massive slice of the mobile market, at the moment the actual Google Play app platform only has 39% market share distribution, compared with 61% for the App Store . This translates into higher revenues from the App Store, but the overall app market is growing fast and Android is cutting into iOS revenues, as Google targets users of lower-end smartphones costing less than $200 with its apps. Alongside tablet users this has helped Google Play reach 90% of the total App Store downloads. However, the problem has been converting that into profits, as better-off iPhone users have been more inclined to buy apps, but making the Android OS free and targeting users of Samsung mobiles in South Korea and Japan particularly, is now helping Google close this gap. Google Play’s revenues rose to 38.5% of the App Store’s (compared with one tenth a year before), indicating that sales of Android games apps in these countries is proving effective.

It is not just games apps that are helping Google Play catch the App Store, and increase its share of the market even further, as educational ones are proving a big hit in schools. The likes of Google Apps for Education are becoming a fixture in US schools, showing that the company has a varied strategy. The impressive performance of Google Play since 2008 and the spread of Android phones around the world, suggests we should all Google Play to win. General interests such as fashion, movies, and sports app are also becoming increasingly popular, with many being developed by individuals and companies. For example for sports fans who enjoy to check the odds on matches there is a Sports Bet Predictor app. These are easily downloadable to devices from the play google page and contain all the necessary information such as the developers details and independent reviews to help you make an informative decision.


According to US scientists, smartphones reflect the personal microbial world of their owners.

A new study suggests that more than 80% of the common bacteria that make up our personal bacterial “fingerprints” end up on their screens.

Personal possessions, such as phones, might be useful for tracking the spread of bacteria, they report in PeerJ.

They reflect our microbiome – the trillions of different micro-organisms that live in and on our bodies.

Mobile phone users have been found to touch their devices on average 150 times a day.

Scientists have found an overlap between the collection of micro-organisms naturally present on our bodies and those on the screens of smartphones.

They say this could one day be used to track people’s exposure to bacteria.

In the study, biologists from the University of Oregon sequenced the DNA of microbes found on the index fingers and thumbs of 17 people.

More than 80 percent of the common bacteria that make up our personal bacterial fingerprints end up on smartphones screens

More than 80 percent of the common bacteria that make up our personal bacterial fingerprints end up on smartphones screens

They also took swabs of the subjects’ smartphones.

A total of 7,000 different types of bacteria were found in 51 samples.

On average, 22% of bacterial families overlapped on fingers and phones.

Some 82% of the most common bacteria present on participants’ fingers were also found on their phones.

They included three families that are commonly found on the skin or in the mouth – Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium.

Men and women both shared bacteria with their phones, but the connection was stronger in women.

Lead researcher Dr. James Meadow said while the sample size was small, the findings were “revealing”.

“This project was a proof-of-concept to see if our favorite and most closely held possessions microbially resemble us,” he said.

“We are ultimately interested in the possibility of using personal effects as a non-invasive way to monitor our health and our contact with the surrounding environment.”

The researchers say there is no evidence that mobile phones present any more infection risk than any other possession.

However, they say our phones might one day be used to study whether people have been exposed to certain bacteria, particularly healthcare workers.

The study confirms that “we share more than an emotional connection with our phones – they carry our personal microbiome”, Dr. James Meadow added.

There is increasing scientific interest in the human microbiome – the population of trillions of micro-organisms that live in our gut, mouth, skin and elsewhere on our bodies.

Bacteria can be harmful but they can also have beneficial effects, particularly in the gut, by digesting food and making essential nutrients and vitamins.

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Microsoft is launching its first phone – Android-powered handset Nokia X2 – after completing its takeover of Nokia’s handset division.

Android operating system, developed by Google, is usually seen as a rival to Microsoft’s own Windows Phone OS.

The company said the Nokia X2 offered it a way to hook users into its cloud-based services, several of which come pre-installed as apps.

Microsoft completed its takeover of Nokia’s handset division on April 25 at a cost of 5.4 billion euros ($7.4 billion).

The X2 is the follow-up to the original X, launched in February before Nokia sold its mobile business.

The original model became the best-selling mobile in Pakistan and the third best-selling handset in India – according to market-research company GfK – as well as achieving strong sales in Russia, Kenya and Nigeria.

Microsoft is launching its first phone, Android-powered handset Nokia X2

Microsoft is launching its first phone, Android-powered handset Nokia X2

Nokia X2 features:

  • a slightly bigger 4.3in (11cm) screen
  • 1GB of RAM – double the amount of memory previously included
  • a more powerful battery
  • the addition of a front-facing camera for selfies

The handset will cost 99 euro ($135) when released in July.

Microsoft’s video chat app Skype, its Outlook email service and its OneDrive internet storage apps all come pre-loaded.

The company is also promoting some of its other apps – including Bing Search, the Yammer business-focused social network and the OneNote idea jotting service – as optional free downloads for the device.

The tile-based homescreen and ability to see apps displayed as a scrollable list on the X2 mirrors the Window Phone user interface, which might help encourage consumers to later make the leap to Microsoft’s more expensive Lumia range.

Windows Phone now boasts over 250,000 apps including Instagram and Vine, which were high-profile absentees until November.

But several banking apps, games, video on-demand software, and apps used to control wearable fitness trackers – all available on Android – remain absent.

The Nokia X2 can run the bigger library of Android apps, but unless users hack the device they can only browse available software via the Nokia Store – which excludes some programs – rather than the more fully-stocked Google Play.

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Microsoft has completed Nokia’s mobile phone deal for 5.44 billion euros ($7.5 billion).

The deal between Microsoft and Nokia should have been completed earlier this year but it was delayed by a hold-up in regulatory approvals.

The sale will see the end of production of mobile phones by Nokia.

Microsoft has completed its purchase of Nokia's mobile phone business for 5.44bn euros

Microsoft has completed its purchase of Nokia’s mobile phone business for 5.44bn euros

“Today we welcome the Nokia devices and services business to our family,” said Microsoft chief executive Satya Nadella.

“The mobile capabilities and assets they bring will advance our transformation.”

Noki will now focus on networks, mapping services and technology development and licenses.

Two Nokia plants will remain outside the deal – a manufacturing unit in Chennai, India, subject to an asset freeze by Indian tax authorities, and the Masan plant in South Korea, which it plans to shut down.

Former Nokia chief executive Stephen Elop has become executive vice president of the Microsoft devices group, in charge of Lumia smartphones and tablets, Nokia mobile phones, Xbox hardware, Microsoft Surface, and Perceptive Pixel (PPI) products.

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2013 Internet & Mobile World (IMWorld 2013), the biggest “business to business” event dedicated to digital, mobile and software solutions in Romania will host the launch of more than 20 applications and business solutions for large companies, owners of online shops and small businesses. In this second edition of IMWorld, developers are focused on applications for tablets and mobile phones, the CRM programs, the online payment applications, the “machine to machine” communication or cloud computing.

IMWorld 2013 main partners are  COSMOTE Romania and Romtelecom Business Solutions, who are also Business Software Partners. “It’s a great opportunity to learn and also to show you, future digital solutions. Our  bet is that businesses move to the “cloud”. In other words, the cloud solutions are those that will provide flexibility and cost-effectiveness that helps any company to grow further, especially if there are complemented by adapted telecom services to each of them, “said Vasile Voicu, Director Product Management Coordinator, Business Segment Romtelecom Business Solutions.

IMWorld 2013

At IMWorld 2013, which will take place between 9 and 10 October 2013, t Romexpo Bucharest, 5,000 participants will have the opportunity to test out a range of business solutions, beneficial to business or started projects. For example, online shops owners, visiting the exhibition will be able to see how work two applications specifically developed for them. For example, Mediapost Hit Mail will launch a solution that takes all logistics and enables merchants to focus only on product selection and promotion. Further, MODE 360 will introduce a new technology, which acts as a small photo studio, allowing 360 degrees photographs of product in a fast and simple way.

The next level in developing applications for taxi is marked by Stuff We Do Software Development, unique technology that will help taxi companies to run in parallel counters with drivers and check if the chosen route is the most appropriate. Other strengths of the application consist of video monitoring security option and / or panic button (for the driver and / or client), and NFC payment option (either by contactless bank card or by voucher, with the same technology).

One of the current global trends, the emergence and development of homes and smart cities underlying application signed by Renovatio IT Solutions. The company will premiere  housing wireless control system, tapHOME, with wich household appliances can be managed through a single mobile application.

This year, IMWorld developers paid special importance to CRM (Customer Relationship Management) programs improvement. Specifically, the EXE Software will launch esInsights, a CRM program with greater number of functions than an ordinary one. Also, due growing use of social networks in the business environment, Entersoft Business Suite beneficiaries will have the possibility to manage Facebook and Twitter accounts directly from CRM solution interface.

 IMWorld 2013

Between companies present with applications at IMWorld there is Decar Studios (an application specially designed for publishers, institutions, universities, schools, and for digital books dealers, which functions as e-learning/e-reader, incorporating a product local shop), RBC (an online payment application, which is achieved by scanning the QR code and retains shopping history, give costs details), Carnation Group (Wootocracy.com platform, the next generation of customer loyalty platforms that combine creative elements of “social gamification”) or Infinit Solutions (a campaign to generate real time leads addressed to “always on” connected and mobile consumer).

“We believe that the business applications and solutions launched [at the event] will show that Internet & Mobile World is the place where Romanian business people gather to connect with dynamic digital solutions reality. Here is the future, here is the key to many business problems. We want the Romanian business public to be up to date with everything that is new, innovative, intelligent and efficient,” said Cristian Hossu, Managing Partner of Universum Events, IMWorld organizer.

IMWorld access is based on pre-registration and tickets can be purchased online until October 8, 2013, visiting www.imworld.ro.

2013 Internet & Mobile World Additional Data:


IMWorld second edition is divided into three business areas: Marketing Technologies, Mobile and Apps, and Business Software and is organized by Universum Events, which is also the “Innovation Summit” organizer, first exclusive event dedicated to business innovation in Romania.

At the event, are expected 5,000 visitors and over 25 international speakers and 130 companies providing business solutions already announced their participation.

The event is supported by Cosmote Romania and Romtelecom Business Solutions, as main partners and sponsors of the Business Software World. Microsoft is Mobile and Apps World Partner and Saatchi & Saatchi is World Partner Marketing Technologies. 2013 Internet & Mobile World Sponsors are: Nokia, S & T Romania, Qualysoft Information Technology, Telcor Communications, Entersoft Romania, Fujitsu, Star Storage, Zitec, MailAgent, Agilio Software, Safetech, Agile Media, MODE360, Transart, BearingPoint, Dynamic Web, Mediapost Hit Mail, Mobixera and SEO monitor, Liberty Technology Park, Cisco Systems Bittnet, PayPro Global, Carnation Group, White Image, Romanian Business Consult, IT and miniPRIX Like. Metro Online is Office Supplies partner and Voxility is official supplier of internet services.

Media partners are Kiss FM, The Money Channel, Getica OOH, Wall-Street.ro, HotNews.ro, AdHugger, Agora, B2B Advertising, Business24.ro, Careers, Computer World, Comunicatedepresa.ro, Connect, DoingBusiness.ro, Digital Trends, Forbes, Incont.ro IT Channel IT Trends, Magazinul Progresiv, Market Watch, PC World, Today Software Magazine, Ziare.com and Zona IT. More information available on www.imworld.ro and www.universum.ro


Sarah Harding has been arrested for using her mobile phone while driving and failing to stop for police in London.

The 31-year-old former Girls Aloud singer was charged with two offences after being pulled over in central London on Thursday afternoon.

Sarah Harding was allegedly spotted on her mobile phone while driving along Charing Cross Road.

Sarah Harding has been arrested for using her mobile phone while driving and failing to stop for police in London

Sarah Harding has been arrested for using her mobile phone while driving and failing to stop for police in London

When police attempted to flag her down, Sarah Harding allegedly refused and ended up being stopped minutes later, according to the Sunday Mirror.

She was taken to Holborn Police Station and charged with the two offences following the incident at 6pm.

Sarah Harding was bailed to appear at Highbury Corner Magistrates Court on April 16.

Drivers who are convicted of using a mobile while driving in the UK can face a maximum fine of £1,000 ($1,600) and even lose their licenses.

Meanwhile, failing to stop for a police officer can result in a £5,000 ($8,000) fine.

Despite her arrest, there was no mention of the incident on her Twitter feed.

On Saturday, Sarah Harding tweeted about recording her debut solo album following Girls Aloud’s split two weeks ago.

The arrest comes after Sarah Harding spoke of how calmer her life is now following a stint in rehab in 2011.

European Parliament has passed regulations to make using a mobile phone abroad significantly cheaper.

The plans, which were voted in by a huge majority, include imposing a price cap on operators.

From July, using mobile data in Europe will not cost more than 70 eurocents per megabyte – far less than current rates.

Consumers will also be able to choose a different operator abroad from the one they use at home.

It is hoped this split-network approach – which comes into force in 2014 – will encourage greater competition.

The first changes will come into effect from 1 July. Calls will be capped at 29 eurocents per minute, plus VAT.

European Parliament has passed regulations to make using a mobile phone abroad significantly cheaper

European Parliament has passed regulations to make using a mobile phone abroad significantly cheaper

The EU said the regulations were designed to prevent “bill shock” – the moment when travelers discover they have totted up huge bills after making calls and using data applications, such as maps, while away.

“In a borderless Europe, there is no place for charges that diverge so much at home and abroad,” said MEP Ivo Belet.

The EU said the changes could mean savings for a “typical” businessman of more than 1,000 Euros in a year.

The EU said that from 2014 customers would be able to choose their mobile networks upon arrival in a country, or signing up to a contract before leaving.

Currently, mobile users are forced to use their standard domestic operator when travelling abroad – or to use alternative arrangements, such as a cheap pre-paid handset.

Under the new regulations, customers can choose a different operator with a more attractive travel tariff before leaving – without changing their number.


According to a major safety review for the UK’s Health Protection Agency (HPA), there is still no evidence mobile phones harm human health.

Scientists looked at hundreds of studies of mobile exposure and found no conclusive links to cancer risk, brain function or infertility.

However, they said monitoring should continue because little was known about long-term effects.

The HPA said children should still avoid excessive use of mobiles.

It is the biggest ever review of the evidence surrounding the safety of mobile phones.

The study said exposure to low-level radio frequency fields was almost universal and continuous because of TV and radio broadcasting, Wi-Fi, and other technological developments.

A group of experts working for the HPA looked at all significant research into the effects of low-level radio frequency.

They concluded that people who were not exposed above guideline levels did not experience any detectable symptoms.

That included people who reported being sensitive to radio frequency.

Scientists looked at hundreds of studies of mobile exposure and found no conclusive links to cancer risk, brain function or infertility

Scientists looked at hundreds of studies of mobile exposure and found no conclusive links to cancer risk, brain function or infertility

They also said there was no evidence that exposure caused brain tumors, other types of cancer, or harm to fertility or cardiovascular health.

But they said very little was known about risks beyond five years, because most people did not use mobile phones until the late 1990s.

Prof. Anthony Swerdlow, who chaired the review group, said it was important to continue monitoring research.

“Even though it’s relatively reassuring, I also think it’s important that we keep an eye on the rates of brain tumors and other cancers,” he said.

“One can’t know what the long-term consequences are of something that has been around for only a short period.”

There has been speculation about the health effects of using mobile phones for years.

The HPA conducted a previous review in 2003, which also concluded that there was no evidence of harm. But there is now far more research into the subject.

The experts said more work was needed on the effect of radio frequency fields on brain activity, and on the possible association with behavioral problems in children.

They also called for more investigation into the effects of new technology which emits radio frequency, such as smart meters in homes and airport security scanners.

The HPA said it was not changing its advice about mobile phone use by children.

“As this is a relatively new technology, the HPA will continue to advise a precautionary approach,” said Dr. John Cooper, director of the HPA’s centre for radiation, chemical and environmental hazards.

“The HPA recommends that excessive use of mobile phones by children should be discouraged.”


A British study of mobile phone calls suggests that women call their spouse more than any other person.

The situation changes as their daughters become old enough to have children, after which they become the most important person in their lives.

The study has been published in the journal Scientific Reports.

It also shows that men call their spouse most often for the first seven years of their relationship. They then shift their focus to other friends.

The results come from an analysis of the texts of mobile phone calls of three million people.

According to the study’s co-author, Professor Robin Dunbar of Oxford University, UK, the investigation shows that pair-bonding is much more important to women than men.

“It’s the first really strong evidence that romantic relationships are driven by women,” Prof. Robin Dunbar.

“It’s they who make the decision and once they have made their mind up, they just go for the poor bloke until he keels over and gives in!”

The study of mobile phone calls suggests that women call their spouse more than any other person

The study of mobile phone calls suggests that women call their spouse more than any other person

But the data shows that women start to switch the preference of their best friend from about the mid-30s, and by the age of 45 a woman of a generation younger becomes the “new best friend”, according to Prof. Robin Dunbar.

“What seems to happen is that women push the <<old man>> out to become their second best friend, and he gets called much less often and all her attention is focused on her daughters just at the point at which you are likely to see grandchildren arriving,” he says.

Prof. Robin Dunbar also claims that the findings suggest that human societies are moving away from a patriarchy back to a matriarchy.

The aim of the project was to find out how close, intimate relationships vary over a lifetime.

This kind of anthropological study is normally very difficult to do because it is hard for researchers to get such a big picture of people’s lives.

But by looking at an at an extremely large mobile phone database, they were able to track these changes extremely accurately.

They had access to the age and sex of the callers, who between them made three billion calls and half a billion texts over a period of seven months.

The team wanted to find out how the gender preference of best friends, as defined by the frequency of the calling, changed over the course of a lifetime and differed between men and women.

They found that men tend to choose a woman the same age as themselves – which the researchers presumed to be their girlfriend or wife – as a best friend much later in life than women do, and for a much shorter time. This occurs when they are in their early-30s, possibly during courtship, and stops after seven years or so.

Women, however, choose a man of a similar age to be their best friend from the age of 20. He remains for about 15 years, after which time he’s replaced by a daughter.

The researchers say that a woman’s social world is intensely focused on one individual and will shift as a result of reproductive interests from being the mate to children and grandchildren.

According to Prof. Robin Dunbar, the data suggests that “at root the important relationships are those between women and not those between men”.

“Men’s relationships are too casual. They often function at a high level in a political sense, of course; but at the end of the day, the structure of society is driven by women, which is exactly what we see in primates,” he explains.

Many anthropologists argue that most human societies are patriarchal on the basis that in most communities men stay where they are born whereas the wives move.

But Prof. Robin Dunbar and his colleagues are arguing that this only occurs in agriculturally based societies.

“If you look at hunter-gatherers and you look at modern humans in modern post-industrial societies, we are much more matriarchal. It’s almost as if the pendulum between the two sexes, power-wise, is swinging (back) as we move away from agriculture toward a knowledge-based economy,” he says.



Almost half of India’s 1.2 billion people have no toilet at home, but more people own a mobile phone, according to the latest census data.

Only 46.9% of the 246.6 million households have lavatories while 49.8% defecate in the open. The remaining 3.2% use public toilets.

Census 2011 data on houses, household amenities and assets reveal that 63.2% of homes have a telephone.

Analysts say the data show the complex contradictions of the Indian system.

They say the census reveals a country where millions have access to cutting-edge technology and consumer goods but a larger number of poor who lack access to even basic facilities.

About 77% of homes in the eastern state of Jharkhand have no toilet facilities, while the figure is 76.6% for Orissa and 75.8% in Bihar. All three are among India’s poorest states with huge populations which live on less than a dollar.

“Open defecation continues to be a big concern for the country as almost half of the population do it,” Registrar General and Census Commissioner C. Chandramouli said while releasing the latest data.

“Cultural and traditional reasons and a lack of education are the prime reasons for this unhygienic practice. We have to do a lot in these fronts,” he said.

Almost half of India's 1.2 billion people have no toilet at home, but more people own a mobile phone, according to the latest census data

Almost half of India's 1.2 billion people have no toilet at home, but more people own a mobile phone, according to the latest census data

The data also reveal that Indians now largely live in nuclear families with 70% of homes consisting of only one couple – a dramatic change in a country where joint families were always the norm.

The census figures also show changes in how people access information and entertainment.

More than half of population – 53.2% – has a mobile phone.

There has been a 16% rise in the number of homes with television sets, while the use of radios has declined by 15%.

The data show that 47.2% of households have a television while only 19.9% have a radio.

And the reach of computers with internet access is still miniscule, with only 3.1% of the population connected.