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The European Union and Germany have rejected Turkish protests over a song aired on German TV mocking Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

The song, aired two weeks ago on regional broadcaster NDR’s extra3 show, takes aim at Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s authoritarian style while also making fun of some of his physical characteristics.

Last week, Turkey summoned the German envoy to demand the song be withdrawn.

However, both Germany and the EU have insisted press freedom is inviolable.Recep Tayyip Erdogan song Germany

In the song, Recep Tayyip Erdogan is criticized on a range of issues ranging from the imprisonment of journalists to heavy-handed treatment of protesters including women (“equal rights for women – they are beaten up equally”).

The song suggests that Recep Tayyip Erdogan would rather bomb Kurds than what the writers term his “brothers in faith”, so-called Islamic State.

The song also ridicules the recent refugee deal agreed between the EU and Turkey seeking to stem the flow of refugees into Europe in exchange for financial aid, among other benefits.

Recep Tayyip Erdogan has been angered by the song, and the Turkish foreign ministry summoned Germany’s ambassador to Ankara – on repeated occasions, according to reports.

A Turkish diplomatic source told AFP news agency: “We summoned the ambassador last week to communicate our protest about the broadcast that we condemned.

“We demanded that the broadcast be removed from the air.”

Such demands got short shrift from European Commission head Jean-Claude Juncker, who “does not appreciate this movement of calling in the German ambassador just because of a satirical song”, spokeswoman Mina Andreeva told reporters.

“He [Jean-Claude Juncker] believes this moves Turkey further from the EU rather than closer to us,” Mina Andreeva said, adding that “freedom of the press and freedom of expression… are values the EU cherishes”.

A spokeswoman for the German foreign ministry said Berlin had told Ankara basic freedoms were “non-negotiable”.

More than 1,800 people – including celebrities and schoolchildren – have been prosecuted in Turkey for insulting Recep Tayyip Erdogan since he came to office in 2014, under a previously little-used law.

A new study has found that North Koreans have more access than ever to outside media, including radio, TV and DVDs.

North Korean government was unable to maintain a ”total monopoly” over information and the people’s ”understanding of the world is changing”, said the report.

Viewing of foreign DVDs in North Korea, especially, had risen sharply.

Most of these DVDs were South Korean dramas, and had been smuggled across the border with China, said the report, commissioned by the US government.

“When you get very well-produced, compelling South Korean dramas – a picture into a place that you’ve been fascinated with your whole life, because so much North Korean propaganda revolves around South Korea – that’s extremely powerful,” said Nat Kretchun, one of the authors of the study.

A new study has found that North Koreans have more access than ever to outside media, including radio, TV and DVDs

A new study has found that North Koreans have more access than ever to outside media, including radio, TV and DVDs

The study was conducted by global consulting group InterMedia over the last two years.

The findings were based on a survey of 250 North Koreans – mostly refugees and a handful of travellers, as well as expert interviews.

Almost half the respondents said they had watched a foreign DVD.

North Korea has traditionally been ranked as the country with the lowest media freedom in the world.

While the majority of North Koreans still did not have direct access to foreign media, the number of those who did ”appears to be steadily increasing”, the report said.

North Koreans are also ”less fearful of sharing that information than before”, it said.

Near the border with China and South Korea television viewing is also popular, with a third who said they watched TV claiming to have viewed foreign broadcasts.

Foreign radio broadcasts, the report added, ”remain important as a source of real-time, sensitive outside news”.

The ”elites” – those with greater financial means or influence – have more access to external sources of media.

Recently, the report found, devices such as computers, USB drives and illegal Chinese mobile phones ”have begun entering North Korea in substantial numbers, especially among the elite”.

However, a personal network – well-connected friends and ”word-of-mouth” – remain the most trusted source of unsanctioned information among those the study interviewed.

The increased access to external sources of information could lead North Koreans to view their own government with a more critical eye, the report concluded.

”While significant bottom-up pressure on the regime is unlikely in the short term, many people in North Korea are beginning to look more critically at the basic premises of their country’s power structure and policies,” it said.